The first day is done. Well, there’s plenty of daylight left but I powered through last night and got to my word count by about 4AM. It was nice to feel so motivated, so I kept telling myself that I could write this piece afterwards to document my experience, which got me to the end. You have to find ways of justifying the effort to yourself, especially if you have problems with motivation like me. We’re getting there.
I had the bare bones of my story in my mind and some scant notes, but I didn’t really know how I was going to flesh out the character development. So that was my goal going into it, using the narrative ideas I’d come up with as a vehicle to develop those ideas, I found that not knowing myself really helped me present those ideas to the reader in a cogent way, and by the end of the first 1680 words, I found that I knew who my protagonist was, what she cared about and developed her relationships with her parents.
It’s quite amazing what you can get done when you sit down, have a plan, and put the work in.
I hope this article format is interesting. If anyone has any questions or wants to talk about their NaNoWriMo experience, I’d be happy to start a dialogue.
We’ve got some more unusual literary devices for your perusal today. We’ve scraped the barrel and hoisted the sales to bring these weirdly named tricks to add some flare and depth to your writing styles. See if you can make use of them in your month of writing – the fun unfolds!
Is it Ana-dip-losis or Ana-di-plosis? I’m going with the latter! This odd sounding technique is actually very simple – when you break a sentence down into clauses, you can choose to end a clause and start the next clause with the same word. It’s a really simple technique and adds weight to the authority of your tone. For example:
“That man speaks in lies, lies carried from the grave!”
Those smart ancient Greeks like to use this method, it pops up everywhere. My favourite example:
“The mountains look on Marathon – And Marathon looks on the sea.”
They’re quite simple to create and can be used in fiction, prose and poetry. This isn’t to be confused with a chiasmus which inverts the meaning between the clauses of a sentence – more on those later!
Bathos uses a dwindling cohesion of metaphors and descriptions to show growing passion of the topic – it’s also used to create silly comedy. I am not a comedian, but here’s the best example I can come up with:
“He urged his friend to stop, to think about the children, to really consider what he was doing – how could he use French mustard on roast beef?”
OK so my example wasn’t great, but used properly bathos can create a strong contrast in the tone of your piece or add a delicate level of wit to something which is actually quite serious.
Chiasmus & Antimetabole
These two are so close together as literary devices that they are often used interchangeably. They’re not entirely the same however. They are used ideally in speeches or perhaps opening lines as rhetoric. When a sentence is repeated by its reversal, to convey an idea or define a point, it is called chiasmus (ki-as-mus). In an antimetabole (anti-me-tab-o-lee) however the words and grammatical structure are also reversed. My example of an antimetabole is one which I have to say a lot during my day job:
“I work to live, not live to work,”
All I’ve done is swap the word work and live around in the second half of the sentence to change the meaning around. For a chiasmus I’ve had to take an example from online, because it’s pretty difficult to distinguish the two types (and some are listed under both literary devices!):
“Never let a fool kiss you or a kiss fool you.”
Thank goodness for examples!
Sounds a bit like a dinosaur type creature, right? Well, Dactyl is an old Greek word for a finger and here’s why we use it to describe this literary device: a dactyl plays on a single word of three syllables, with the verbal accent of the first syllable emphasised over the second and third. The technique is used mostly in poetry (some say overused) to the point where its kind of normalised now. The opposite to this is the anapest, which puts the emphasis on the second two syllables rather than the first.
So, a dactyl in poetry (which is in itself a dactyl, PO-e-try) can consist of a series of dactyls in order to provide a meter for the reader, some say this gives the poem or piece of work a galloping effect -which people then link to The Charge of the Light Brigade, a famous and overused example online:
Half a league, half a league,
Half a league onward
All in the valley of Death
You could argue that a dactyl can build a rhythm in your written work when the time is right, whether that’s a galloping charge of mounted soldiers or the specific beat of a drum, dactyls can be used as a literary device to help convey strong imagery.
This wraps up today’s unusually named literary devices. We hope you’ve enjoyed learning about some weird but cool and subtle tricks to add life to your fiction. Let us know if you have any success or if you’ve got any questions. Maybe you can improve on our descriptions? We’d love to get you involved!
To some readers a kenning will be a familiar concept. Here in the UK we use them daily, although most of us won’t realise that we’re using them. They have a definite taste of the old world and find their use mostly in poetry for effect, or the sort of language your grandma might use.
What is a kenning?
Wiki defines them as:
“… compound expression in Old English and Old Norse poetry with a metaphorical meaning.”
Not too helpful, thanks Wiki! A better definition by Dictionary.com:
“A conventional phrase used for or in addition to the usual name of a person or thing, especially in Icelandic and Anglo-Saxon verse, as ‘a wave traveller’ for ‘a boat.’”
So, we’re using two or more words to describe something, usually a noun. It seems an odd thing to do, but when you think about it, before radio and visual recordings we only had books (which most people couldn’t read) or we had spoken stories. Kennings, as far as I can tell, are stylistic choices much like a film director uses special effects to grab our attention. Kennings make you think pretty.
If you’ve ever used the phrase ‘as the crow flies’ you are describing a distance measured only in a straight line – it could be a mile directly, or it could be several miles if you follow roads and pathways. See? It sounds better, no? Apparently, we use kennings daily.
The term Ken is still used in certain parts of the British Isles, mainly in the northern regions, such as Scotland where its term is used to describe an understanding or mental perception. It’s use in English is less common, but in archaic dialects it means to acknowledge or confess.
The best source of kennings?
Beowulf is a prime example of a collection of expressive kennings. It can be quite hard to follow without context, meaning kennings need to be backed up with a story. Here we have feed the eagle, which in old Norse terms equates to kill you enemies – the understanding would be that birds of prey are not shy of feeding on carrion, those fallen in battle. The whale road simply meaning the sea is a nice mental picture that pops into our mind even though we know what the sea looks like. To the ancient Norse or Saxons, the relevance was much stronger on account of their reliance on sea travel and whaling.
What can we use them for?
I’m suggesting you have a look at kennings when you write. If you’re writing something unusual, or in a fantasy genre, kennings can add a bit of vocal flavour, form part of a riddle or puzzle. The same can apply to role-playing games.
Kennings arise from the poetry of the old world, dialects and stories from skalds (Norse story tellers) and become commonplace between people who are isolated from the rest of the world (a bit like Iceland or Greenland). It adds a lot of immersion if people in your setting or game session refer to simple things with their own words. This works for titles, places of taboo, legendary figures or important tools to a culture.
It also means you don’t have to create languages up!
Things I will be using Kennings for in the future:
Names of magical items
Titles and names of great beasts or creatures, like Dragons!
Fancy slurs for rough and ready fictional characters
‘Old-tongue’ for archaic dialects (see what I did there?)
Here’s a few more examples of modern terms we use today, which you may not understand if you’re in a different dialect bubble to mine – you can see how kennings influence our daily lives still:
Hot-potato – when there’s something no one wants to go near or touch!
First-Lady – the president of the US’s wife or the president of the US if she was a lady?
Tramp-stamp – tattoo, usually on the lower back of a woman.
Granny-chaser – I won’t explain this one.
So, as you can tell, they are not always glorious or quaint metaphors, some being quite distasteful! But the use of kennings has not gone away in thousands of years. What started as an oral story telling tradition has thankfully found its way onto paper and into books and is now digital too. Kennings have survived where cultures and societies didn’t.
It seems the Kennings are still a huge part of our language and will probably remain to be so until we stop language altogether.
Have a go yourself, see what you can come up with!